International Organization for Migration (IOM)
The International Organisation for Migration (IOM) is an inter-governmental organisation that works with governments to ensure the orderly and humane management of migration for the benefit of all. IOM addresses the migratory phenomenon from an integral and holistic perspective, including links to development in order to maximise its benefits and minimise its negative effects.
Terms of Reference for Mapping of Ethiopian diaspora living in South Africa
The Ethiopian diaspora living out of Ethiopia is estimated to reach over 1 million, according to Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ (MoFA) estimates about 500 000 are living in United States of America (USA); 39 000 in United Kingdom; 46 000 in Canada; 26 000 in Germany; 30 000 in Australia and 10 000 in the Netherlands. There are also large numbers of Ethiopians who are living in other European, Middle Eastern, mainly Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE) and African countries notably there is a broader understanding that Ethiopians living in South Africa are large.
Over a period of time the contribution of Ethiopians living abroad to Ethiopia’s development through sending remittances to their families and siblings; investing in various sectors of the Ethiopian economy; and knowledge and skills transfer to institutions in Ethiopia has increased significantly.
Many more of the diaspora members are also interested to participate and engage themselves in different developmental activities in Ethiopia. However, lack of clear diaspora policy by the Government of Ethiopia, lack of information on the country’s developmental process to the diaspora and notably the poor knowledge on the composition of the Ethiopian diaspora living abroad are among the factors that hindered the maximum utilisation of the Ethiopian diaspora to the country’s development.
The IOM seeks the service of a Consultant for a mapping exercise to produce a comprehensive report that will be used to guide the design of potential programme interventions to facilitate them with an opportunity to engage in the developmental process of the country through various means.
Since the opening of its office in Ethiopia, IOM Addis has been engaged in different projects to mobilise and utilise the resources of the Ethiopian diaspora to the development of Ethiopia. Notably, the Migration for Development in Ethiopia (MIDEth) programme that has been operational from November 2007 to September 2011 in collaboration with the Government of Ethiopia and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Ethiopia office has accomplished various activities.
- The programme has mobilised large number of skilled Ethiopian professionals from North America and Europe to support institutions in knowledge and skills transfer in hospitals and universities. Medical professionals from the diaspora have conducted number of medical procedures in the local hospitals and donated medicines and medical equipments. Besides, academicians from the diaspora have assisted universities in block teaching and establishing relations with foreign universities
- Supporting the Government of Ethiopia in the process of drafting diaspora policy through facilitating various outreach activities and diaspora dialogue.
- High level government officials have visited various countries in North America and Europe to discuss with the Ethiopian diaspora on various issues. In 2011 the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, GoE has also led a delegate of high government officials to the UK to promote investment in to Ethiopia, but also encouraging the Ethiopian diaspora to engage in the developmental process of the country in different ways.
- A study on the engagement of the Ethiopian diaspora in Ethiopia had been commissioned to inform policy makers on the response of different directives and regulations issued by the Government of Ethiopia in relation to the Ethiopian diaspora. The study was conducted by consortium of experts from Addis Ababa University (AAU) the oldest University in Ethiopia.
The study conducted had identified various good practices by Ethiopian diaspora investors from USA, UK, Canada and Saudi Arabia. These investments have shown a significant increment over a period of time. But, the study further identified a lack of capacity within the government offices working on diaspora issues and huge information gap between these government offices and the members of the diaspora living abroad. The study also recommended various intervention areas in order to optimally utilize the resources of the Ethiopian diaspora. These measures include capacity buildings of offices working on diaspora affairs at the federal and regional level in Ethiopia in order to provide better service delivery to the Ethiopian diaspora at all levels in Ethiopia and to have a broader understanding of the number and composition of Ethiopians living abroad to enable the government introduce appropriate policy and programmatic interventions.
Subsequently, the Government of Ethiopia has consulted the draft diaspora policy with stakeholders including the Ethiopian diaspora living in North America, Europe, Middle Eastern and African countries to formally introduce it as a diaspora policy for Ethiopia.
Besides, the five year national plan of Ethiopian the Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) has various opportunities to the members of the Ethiopian diaspora to engage in various areas of business and investment as well as skills transfer. The United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) for Ethiopia (2012 – 2015) has also given substantial recognition to the role of the Ethiopian diaspora could play in achieving the country’s five year plan.
The main objectives of this mapping exercise are to establish/estimate the number, composition and structure of the Ethiopian diaspora living in South Africa, identify the interests to participate and engage in developmental activities of Ethiopia such as business and investment as well as skills transfer; and to identify barriers that could be hindering the Ethiopians living in South Africa from engaging in investment, skills transfer and other philanthropic activities.
The methodology proposed is:
- Reflect the current situation of migrants in South Africa with an emphasis to the Ethiopian migrants living in RSA;
- Conduct face to face and online interviews with at least 150 members of the Ethiopian diaspora representing a cross-section of the community (considering gender, location, profession and length of time in the South Africa);
- Conduct 6 focus group discussions with Ethiopian professional and social diaspora associations/organisations in three cities where Ethiopians are predominantly living;
- Conduct interviews with the Ethiopian Embassy officials in South Africa
- Analyse results and findings and prepare draft report;
- Present report during half/one day workshop in Pretoria/Johannesburg with members of the diaspora for feedback and potential editorial changes;
- Finalise the report
As a result of the mapping exercise a document containing the following elements is expected to come out.
As a result of the mapping exercise, the final report should contain the following elements:
- A summary of migrants situations in RSA with emphasis to Ethiopian Migrants;
- An estimation of the number and composition of Ethiopian diaspora and diaspora associations living in South Africa;
- An outline of levels of awareness amongst the diaspora of available opportunities to engage in development activities in Ethiopia. Any gaps in knowledge identified;
- An outline of levels and areas of interest of the Ethiopian diaspora to participate in these activities;
- Identification of the barriers that may be preventing the Ethiopian diaspora from engaging in these activities.
The time frame for the completion of the mapping exercise would be a total of three months is envisioned for the exercise, from December 2012 to end of February 2013. The time frame would be broken down as follows:
A period of 70 days of to conduct the following:
- Face to face and online interviews with the diaspora members, the Ethiopian Embassy officials in South Africa;
- Six focus group discussions in cities that will be determined in consultation with the identified Research Consultant; and
- Prepare the first draft of the report.
- Following the half/one day workshop in South Africa, a finalised version of the report (incorporating feedback and edits) should be submitted to IOM Pretoria after a period of 20 days.
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